What is a confounding variable and why doresearchers try to eliminate confounding variables?Provide two examples of confounding variables.2.What are the advantages anddisadvantages of posttest only design and pretest-posttest design?3.What is meant by sensitivity of a dependentvariable?4.What are the differences between anindependent groups design and a repeated measuresdesign?5.How does an experimenter?s expectationsand participant expectations affect outcomes?6.Provide an example of a factorial design.What are the key features of a factorial design? Whatare the advantages of a factorial design?7.Describe at least four different dependentvariables.8.What are some ways researchers canmanipulate independent variables?9.What is the difference between main effectsand interactions?10.How do moderator variables impactresults? Provide an example.11.A researcher is interested in studying theeffects of story endings on preference ratings. Herandomly assigns participants into two groups:predictable ending or surprise ending. He instructs themto read the story and provide preference ratings. Theexperimenter?s variation of story endings is a__________ (straightforward or staged) manipulation.12.A researcher was interested in investigatingthe vocabulary skills of 6th graders in a program forgifted students. She gave a group of participants a testof vocabulary that was aimed at the 7th-grade level.She quickly discovered that there was limited variabilityin the scores because nearly all the students answered90% or more of the questions correctly. This outcomeis called a _______ effect.
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