Expectancy-Value TheoryTheorists who believe that mental processes are required for learning do not discount the importance of behavior. Rather, they frequently combine behavioral processes with cognition. The expectancy-value theory of learning is one that combines behavior with cognition. It includes the concepts of rewards, a necessary element in the behaviorist theory of operant learning that you studied in Week 3. However, the perspective on rewards is different and involves cognitive learning. Expectancy-value theory posits that behavior is influenced by the way that you think about rewards. While operant learning theory suggests that you behave automatically in order to receive awards, expectancy-value theory proposes that you think about whether the reward is likely to occur (expectancy) and how much that reward is worth (value) before behaving in a way to help you earn that reward. A reward can be anything from winning millions in a lottery to achieving a goal such as learning to speak a new language.Psychologist, Julian Rotter, originated the expectancy-value theory to explain behavior. Additionally, he expanded his concept to include locus of control, which also influences your expectations for receiving rewards by analyzing whether you or someone else influences your likelihood to receive a reward. Your three assigned articles explain Rotter?s expectancy value theory in further detail. The articles ?Julian Rotter? and ?The Social Learning Theory of Julian Rotter? provide information about locus of control. Note that some resources use the terms social learning theory and social cognitive learning theory interchangeably. The subtle distinction is not critical for you to understand. It is important for you to know that both references describe theories that are not limited to behavior and require mental processes.To prepare for this assignment:Review the online article, ?Julian Rotter? by Dr. Ken Tangen on the PsychNut Web site. Note the three component parts of Rotter?s system and the concept of locus of control.Review the online article ?The Social Learning Theory of Julian B. Rotter.? Focus on the overview of the theory and on locus of control.Take the online test, ?The Locus of Control.?Think of one learning goal that you would like to achieve. It can be anything you want to learn. Examples include a learning a new language, a sport, information in a book, or even a list of United States presidents in order of the dates they held office.Reflect on how your locus of control could influence your ability to achieve your goal and why.The assignment (1 page): No Plagiarism, APA style format and must be cited with references and also use course text book. Thank youDescribe the learning goal that you would like to achieve.Explain how Rotter?s Expectancy-Value Theory could influence your ability to achieve your learning goal. Be specific.Finally, summarize your results from the locus of control test. Then explain how your degree of locus of control could influence your ability to achieve your learning goal.Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation.References:o Course Text: Chance, P. (2014). Learning and behavior (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Chapter 4, ?Pavlovian Applications? (pp. 96?101)o Chapter 6, ?Reinforcement: Beyond Habit? (pp. 176-180 and pp. 187-189)? Book Excerpt: Zimbardo, P. G., Johnson, R. L., & Weber, A. L. (2005). Learning. In Psychology: Core concepts (pp. 224?269). Boston: Pearson. Retrieved from http://www.ablongman.com/samplechapter/0205424287.pdf? Article: Tangen, K. (2009). Julian Rotter. Retrieved from http://kentangen.com/psychnut/rotter/? Article: Mearns, J. (2009). The social learning theory of Julian B. Rotter. Retrieved from http://psych.fullerton.edu/jmearns/rotter.htm? Web SitesThe Locus of Controlhttp://www.psych.uncc.edu/pagoolka/LC.html!

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