Greek religion and mythology Essay Help

In Greek religion and mythology Pan (Ancient Greek: ??? P?n) is the god of the wild shepherds and flocks nature of mountain wilds hunting and rustic music and companion of the nymphs.[1] His name originates within the Ancient Greek language from the word paein (?????) meaning to pasture.?[2] He has the hindquarters legs and horns of a goat in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia he is recognized as the god of fields groves and wooded glens; because of this Pan is connected to fertility and the season ofGreek religion and mythology spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism.[3] In Roman religion and myth Pan?s counterpart was Faunus a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea sometimes identified as Fauna. In the 18th and 19th centuries Pan became a significant figure in the Romantic movement of western Europe and also in the 20th-century Neopagan movement.[4] Origins In his earliest appearance in literature Pindar?s Pythian Ode iii. 78 Pan is associated with a mother goddess perhaps Rhea or Cybele; Pindar refers to virgins worshipping Cybele and Pan near the poet?s house in Boeotia.[5] The parentage of Pan is unclear;[6] in some myths he is the son of Zeus though generally he is the son of Hermes or Dionysus with whom his mother is said to be a nymph sometimes Dryope or in Nonnus Dionysiaca (14.92) Penelope of Mantineia in Arcadia. This nymph at some point in the tradition became conflated with Penelope the wife of Odysseus. Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. Other sources (Duris of Samos; the Vergilian commentator Servius) report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus? absence and gave birth to Pan as a result.[7] This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan?s name (???) with the Greek word for all? (???).[8] It is more likely to be cognate with paein to pasture? and to share an origin with the modern English word pasture?. In 1924 Hermann Collitz suggested that Greek Pan and Indic Pushan might have a common Indo-European origin.[9] In the Mystery cults of the highly syncretic Hellenistic era[10] Pan is made cognate with Phanes/Protogonos Zeus Dionysus and Eros.[11] The Roman Faunus a god of Indo-European origin was equated with Pan. However accounts of Pan?s genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time. Like other nature spirits Pan appears to be older than the Olympians if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo. Pan might be multiplied as the Panes (Burkert 1985 III.3.2; Ruck and Staples 1994 p 132[12]) or the Paniskoi. Kerenyi (p. 174) notes from scholia that Aeschylus in Rhesus distinguished between two Pans one the son of Zeus and twin of Arcas and one a son of Cronus. In the retinue of Dionysos or in depictions of wild landscapes there appeared not only a great Pan but also little Pans Paniskoi who played the same part as the Satyrs?.”

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